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On the pages that follow, we offer the trainee a copy of NIDA's 13 Principles of Effective Drug Addiction Treatment (Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment: A Research Based Guide, NCADI publication BKD347) This is presented in a format that is easily printable.

This will be followed by some guidelines for interviewing involuntary clients (Interviewing for Solutions, 2nd edition. P. de Jong & I. Berg, Wadsworth, 2002)

NIDA's 13 Principles of Effective Drug Addiction Treatment

1. No single treatment is appropriate for all individuals.
2. Treatment needs to be readily available.
3. Effective treatment attends to multiple needs of the individual, not just his or her drug use.
4. Treatment needs to be flexible and to provide ongoing assessment of patient needs, which may change during the course of treatment.
5. Remaining in treatment for an adequate period of time is critical for treatment effectiveness.
6. Individual and/or group counseling and other behavioral therapies are critical components of effective treatment for addiction.
7. Medications are an important element of treatment for many patients.
8. Addicted or drug-abusing individuals with co-existing mental disorders should have both disorders treated in an integrated way.
9. Medical detoxification is only the first stage of addiction treatment, and by itself does little to change long-term drug use.
10. Treatment does not need to be voluntary to be effective.
11. Possible drug use during treatment must be monitored continuously.
12. Treatment programs should provide assessment for HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B and C, tuberculosis and other infectious diseases.
13. Recovery from drug addiction can be a long-term process and frequently requires multiple episodes of treatment.

Guidelines for Interviewing Involuntary Clients

1. Assume you will be interviewing someone who starts out in a visiting relationship to your services.
2. Assume the client has good reason to think and act as he or she does.
3. Suspend your judgment and agree with the client's perceptions that stand behind his or her cautious, protective posture.
4. Listen for who and what are important to the client, including when the client is angry and critical.
5. When clients are openly angry or critical, ask what the offending person or agency could have done differently to be more useful to them.
6. Be sure to ask for the client's perception of what is in his or her best interest; that is, ask for what the client might want.
7. Listen for and reflect the client's use of language.
8. Bring the client's context into the interview by asking relationship questions.
9. Respectfully provide information about any non-negotiable requirements and immediately ask for the client's perceptions regarding these.
10. Always stay not knowing. (Be humble and open, in other words.)

Our next addendum component presents key components of the drug court model (at

Key Components of the Drug Court Model

Incorporating drug testing into case processing.
Creating a non-adversarial relationship between the defendant and the court.
Identifying defendants in need of treatment and referring them to treatment as soon as possible after the arrest.
Providing access to a continuum of treatment and rehabilitation services.
Monitoring abstinence through frequent, mandatory drug testing.
Establishing a coordinated strategy to govern drug court responses to participants' compliance.
Maintaining judicial interaction with each drug court participant.
Monitoring and evaluating program goals and gauging their effectiveness.
Continuing interdisciplinary education to promote effective drug court planning, implementation, and operations.
Forging partnerships among drug courts, public agencies, and community based organizations to generate local support and enhance drug court effectiveness.

Finally, we offer a list of web sites that provide useful information related to drug and alcohol abuse.

Useful Websites for Information on DOA Abuse

Addiction Technology Transfer Center Network:
Drug Court Clearinghouse American University:
Drug Court Technology:
Drug Strategies:
Join Together:
National Association of Addiction Treatment Providers:
National Association of Drug Court Professionals:
National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse:
National Criminal Justice Reference Service:
National Institute on Drug Abuse:
National Institute of Justice:
Office of Drug Control Policy:
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration:
National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information: