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2. American Cancer Society, Melatonin,

3. Anxiety Care UK, Sleep Disorders,

4. Bodosi, B, Gardi, J, Hajdu, I, Szentirmai, E, Obal, F, et al., Rhythms of ghrelin, leptin, and sleep in rats: Effects of the normal diurnal cycle, restricted feeding, and sleep deprivation. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol, 2004, 287: R1071–R1079.

5. Bonnet, M, Arand, D, Patient information: Insomnia treatments (Beyond the Basics), Up-to-Date, Wolters Kluwer Health,

6. Boozer CN, Nasser JA, Heymsfield SB, Wang V, Chen G, Solomon JL, An herbal supplement containing Ma Huang-Guarana for weight loss: a randomized, double-blind trial, Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001 Mar; 25(3):316-24.

7. CDC, NIOSH Research on Work Schedules and Work-related Sleep Loss,

8. Cirelli, C, Tononi, G, Is Sleep Essential, PLOS Biology,

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10. Dixit, VD, Schaffer, EM, Pyle, RS, Collins, GD, Sakthivel, SK, et al., Ghrelin inhibits leptin- and activation-induced proinflammatory cytokine expression by human monocytes and T cells. J Clin Invest, 2004, 114: 57–66.

11. Domhoff, G. W. (2001). A new neurocognitive theory of dreams. Dreaming, 11, 13-33.

12. Everson, CA, Crowley, WR, Reductions in circulating anabolic hormones induced by sustained sleep deprivation in rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 2004, 286: E1060–E1070.

13. Guilleminault, C, Powell, NB, Martinez, S, Kushida, C, Raffray, T, et al. Preliminary observations on the effects of sleep time in a sleep restriction paradigm. Sleep Med, 2003, 4: 177–184.

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15. Harsch, IA, Konturek, PC, Koebnick, C, Kuehnlein, PP, Fuchs, FS, et al., Leptin and ghrelin levels in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: Effect of CPAP treatment. Eur Respir J, 2003, 22: 251–257.

16. Hasler B, Germain A; Correlates and Treatments of Nightmares in Adults. Sleep Med Clin. 2009 Dec;4(4):507-517.

17. Hegarty, S, The Myth of the 8-hour sleep, BBC News,

18. Heslop, P, Smith, GD, Metcalfe, C, Macleod, J, Hart, C, Sleep duration and mortality: The effect of short or long sleep duration on cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in working men and women. Sleep Med, 2002, 3: 305–314.

19. Hossain, P, Kawar, B, and El Nahas, M, Ph.D. Obesity and Diabetes in the Developing World — A Growing Challenge, N Engl J Med 2007; 356:213-215

20. Hypersomnia Foundation, About Idiopathic Hypersomnia,

21. Korbonits, M, Goldstone, AP, Gueorguiev, M, Grossman, AB, Ghrelin—A hormone with multiple functions. Front Neuroendocrinol, 2004, 25: 27–68.

22. Kripke, DF, Garfinkel, L, Wingard, DL, Klauber, MR, Marler, MR, Mortality associated with sleep duration and insomnia. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 2002, 59: 131–136.

23. Kripke, DF, Ultradian Rhythms in Sleep and Wakefulness, in Advances in Sleep Research, Weitzman, Ed., 1973, NY: Spectrum

24. Krippner, S, Combs, A, Self-Organization in the Dreaming Brain,

25. Krugman, H, Brain Wave Measures of Media Involvement, J Advertising Research, 1971, V 11, no. 1

26. Landsberg, L, Aronne, L, Beilin, L, Burke, V, Igel, L, Lloyd-Jone, D, Sowers, J, Obesity-related Hypertension: Pathogenesis, Cardiovascular Risk and Treatment-A Position Paper of the Obesity Society and the American Society of Hypertension, Obesity, 2013, 21

27. Lee, W, Nagubadi, S, Kryger, MH, Mokhlesi, B, Epidemiology of obstructive sleep apnea: a population-based perspective. Expert Rev Respir Med 2008, v 2, no 3,

28. Leong, SK & Wilding, J, Obesity and diabetes, Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 13, Issue 2, July 1999

29. Leproult, R & van Cauter, E, Role of Sleep and Sleep Loss in Hormonal Release and Metabolism, Endocr Dev. 2010, v 17

30. Libby, P, Inflammation and cardiovascular disease mechanisms, Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Feb, V 83, no 2

31. Mayo Clinic, Central Sleep Apnea, Treatments and drugs,

32. Mayo Clinic, Restless Leg Syndrome,

33. MedLine Plus, National Institute of Health,

34. Meier, U, Gressner, AM, Endocrine regulation of energy metabolism: Review of pathobiochemical and clinical chemical aspects of leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, and resistin. Clin Chem, 2004, 50: 1511–1525.

35. Morgenthaler, T, Kagramanov, V, Hanak, V, Paul A. Decker, P, Complex Sleep Apnea Syndrome: Is It a Unique Clinical Syndrome? Sleep, VOLUME 29, ISSUE 09

36. Mullington, JM, Chan, JL, Van Dongen, HP, Szuba, MP, Samaras J, et al., Sleep loss reduces diurnal rhythm amplitude of leptin in healthy men. J Neuroendocrinol, 2003, 15: 851–854.

37. National Organization for Are Disorders (NORD), Narcolepsy,

38. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH, Brain Basics, Understanding Sleep,

39. Ohayon MM, Roth T., Prevalence of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder in the general population., J Psychosom Res. 2002, Jul;53(1):547-54.

40. Peelman, F, Waelput, W, Iserentant, H, Lavens, D, Eyckerman, S, et al. Leptin: Linking adipocyte metabolism with cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases. Prog Lipid Res, 2004, 43: 283–301.

41. Punjabi, NM, The Epidemiology of Adult Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2008 Feb 15; 5(2),

42. Rogers, NL, Szuba, MP, Staab, JP, Evans, DL, Dinges D, Neuroimmunologic aspects of sleep and sleep loss, Seminars in Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 2001, 6(4):295-307

43. Roth, T, Insomnia: Definition, Prevalence, Etiology, and Consequences, J Clin Sleep Med. 2007 Aug 15; 3(5 Suppl),

44. Sikder, D, Hormone Fights Fat With Fat: Orexin Prevents Obesity in Mice by Activating Calorie-Burning Brown Fat, Science Daily, October 5, 2011,

45. Simard V, Nielsen TA, Tremblay RE, et al; Longitudinal study of bad dreams in preschool-aged children: prevalence, demographic correlates, risk and protective factors. Sleep. 2008 Jan;31(1):62-70.

46. Sinton, CM, Fitch, TE, Gershenfeld, HK, The effects of leptin on REM sleep and slow wave delta in rats are reversed by food deprivation. J Sleep Res, 1999, 8: 197–203.

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48. Spiegel, K, Leproult, R, Van Cauter, E, Impact of sleep debt on physiological rhythms, Rev Neurol (Paris) 159: Suppl , 2003, 116S11–6S20.

49. Taheri, S, Lin, L, Austin, D, Young, T, Mignot, E (2004) Short sleep duration is associated with reduced leptin, elevated ghrelin, and increased body mass index—A population-based study. PLoS Med, 2004, 3: e62.

50. Talbott, S, The Cortisol Connection, 2007, Alameda, CA: Hunter House, Inc.

51. Tasali, E, Leproult, R, Ehrmann, D, Van Cauter, E, Slow-wave sleep and the risk of type 2 diabetes in humans, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States, Vol. 105, n. 3, 2008

52. Tsujino, N and Sakurai, T, Orexin/Hypocretin: A Neuropeptide at the Interface of Sleep, Energy Homeostasis, and Reward System, Pharmacological Reviews June 2009 vol. 61 no. 2

53. Vague, J, Vague, P, Tramoni, M, Vialettes, B, Mercier, P, Obesity and diabetes, Acta diabetologia latina APRIL–JUNE 1980, Volume 17, Issue 2

54. Vgontzas, AN, Bixler, EO, Chrousos, GP, Metabolic disturbances in obesity versus sleep apnoea: The importance of visceral obesity and insulin resistance. J Intern Med, 2003, 254: 32–44.

55. Waldhauser, F, Kovacs, J, Reiter, E, Age-related changes in melatonin levels in humans and its potential consequences for sleep disorders, Experiemental Gerontology, v33, 7-8, 1998

56. Wehr TA. In short photoperiods, human sleep is biphasic. J Sleep Res.1992;1:103-107

57. Weikel, JC, Wichniak, A, Ising, M, Brunner, H, Friess, E, et al., Ghrelin promotes slow-wave sleep in man. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 2002, 284: E407–E415.

58. Wolk, R, Gami, AS, Garcia-Touchard, A, Somers, VK, Sleep and cardiovascular disease, Curr Probl Cardiol. 2005 Dec, v 30, no 12

59. Young, T, Palta, M, Dempsey, J, Skatrud, J, Weber, S, Badr, S. The occurrence of sleep-disordered breathing among middle-aged adults. The New England Journal of Medicine, April 1993,328(17): 1230–5.

60. Yudkin, JS, Juhan-Vague I, Hawe, E, Humphries, SE, di Minno, G, et al. Low-grade inflammation may play a role in the etiology of the metabolic syndrome in patients with coronary heart disease: The HIFMECH study. Metabolism, 2004,  53: 852–857.

61. Zeitzer, JM, Friedman, L & O’Hara, R, Insomnia in the Context of Traumatic Brain Injury, Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 46, no. 6, 2009